Montreal, October 18, 2020 - In Montreal's neighbourhoods, as well as in numerous cities and towns around the world, members of the Bahá’í Community and their friends gathered in large numbers to celebrate the birth of the Herald of the Bahá’í Faith, the Báb, and the Founder of this movement, Bahá'u'lláh, via teleconference.

The Báb, whose name was Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, was born in the city of Shiraz, the first day of muharram of the year 1235 after the Hegira corresponding to October 20, 1819 AD, while Baha'u'lalh was born in Tehran on the second day of muharram in the year 1233 after the Hegira corresponding to November 12, 1817.

In 2014, the Universal House of Justice, the institution that runs the affairs of the Bahá’í Community around the world, decided to celebrate the two Holy Days on the first and second day after the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz (the Bahá’í New Year), starting on March 20, 2015. Thus, from March 20, 2015, the day the birth of Baha'u'l'lh will be celebrated after that of the Báb and therefore subject to change from year to year.

The Báb, whose name was Siyyid Ali Muhammad, was born in the city of Shiraz, on the first day of Muharram, in the year 1235 A.H. He belonged to a house which was renowned for its nobility and which traced its origin to Muhammad Himself. The date of His birth confirmed the truth of the prophecy traditionally attributed to the Imam Ali: "I am two years younger than my Lord." Twenty-five years, four months, and four days had elapsed since the day of His birth, when he declared His Mission. In His early childhood He lost His father, Siyyid Muhammad-Rida, a man who was known throughout the province of Fars for his piety and virtue, and was held in high esteem and honour. Both His father and His mother were descendants of the Prophet, both were loved and respected by the people. He was reared by His maternal uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali, a martyr to the Faith, who placed Him, while still a child, under the care of a tutor named Shaykh Abid. The Báb, though not inclined to study, submitted to His uncle's will and directions.

He declared his divine mission as related by His first disciple: "'That night, that memorable night, was the eve preceding the fifth day of Jamadiyu'l Avval, in the year 1260 A.H.

It was about an hour after sunset when my youthful Host began to converse with me. "Whom, after Siyyid Kazim (the leader of Shaykhism - 1793–1843)" He asked me, "do you regard as his successor and your leader?" "At the hour of his death," I replied, "our departed teacher insistently exhorted us to forsake our homes, to scatter far and wide, in quest of the promised Beloved. I have, accordingly, journeyed to Persia, have arisen to accomplish his will, and am still engaged in my quest." "Has your teacher," He further enquired, "given you any detailed indications as to the distinguishing features of the promised One?" "Yes," I replied, "He is of a pure lineage, is of illustrious descent, and of the seed of Fatimih. As to His age, He is more than twenty and less than thirty. He is endowed with innate knowledge. He is of medium height, abstains from smoking, and is free from bodily deficiency." He paused for a while and then with vibrant voice declared: "Behold, all these signs are manifest in Me!" He then considered each of the above-mentioned signs separately, and conclusively demonstrated that each and all were applicable to His person.

This night," He declared, "this very hour will, in the days to come, be celebrated as one of the greatest and most significant of all festivals. Render thanks to God for having graciously assisted you to attain your heart's desire, and for having quaffed from the sealed wine of His utterance. 'Well is it with them that attain thereunto.

Baha'u'lláh was the Founder of the Bahá’í Faith, which advocates universal peace and unity among all races, nations and religions.

At the age of 27, Bahá’u’lláh became a disciple of the Báb, who began to preach that God would soon send a new prophet similar to Moses, Jesus or Muhammad.

Bahá’u’lláh's mother was so captivated by him that she could not contain her wonder at her behaviour. "This child never cries," she said. "It is different from other babies who cry, cry and never rest easy in their childhood...”  

 At the age of five or six, Bahá’u’lláh had a dream that he described to his father. In this dream, he was in a garden. Huge birds attacked Him from all sides, but could cause him no harm. He then went into the sea and while He was swimming, the birds of the air and the fish of the sea attacked him, but without harming him.

His father asked a renowned seer to interpret the dream. "This dream means," replied the seer, "that the Child will be the founder of a great Cause, and that all the rulers and scholars of the whole world will attack Him, but, in the same way as birds and fish, they will not be able to harm Him. He will be victorious over all of them! »  

When Bahá’u’lláh was seven years old, one day His mother considered the elegance of his allure as he walked from here and there, and said, "He's a little short in size," but his father replied, "This doesn't matter. Don't you know His skill and abilities? Such intelligence! And such a perception! It's a flame of fire. Even young as He is, He surpasses mature men.”

When difficult problems were discussed and no one seemed able to solve them, the young Blessed Beauty provided the solution.

While He was still a child, the Blessed Beauty observed that a government tax collector, on three different occasions, had approached His father and asked, in an unjust and cruel way, for the payment of taxes. Unable to bear the injustice of all this, although still in his early childhood, Bahá’u’lláh rode His horse and his ride lasted two days to Tehran. When he got there, he sought to have the unjust and tyrannical tax collector dismissed. He was able to obtain the necessary papers for his impeachment and returned to his parents.

In the name He bore He combined those of the Imam Husayn, the most illustrious of the successors of the Apostle of God -- the brightest "star" shining in the "crown" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John -- and of the Imam Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, the second of the two "witnesses" extolled in that same Book. He was formally designated Bahá'u'lláh, an appellation specifically recorded in the Persian Bayan, signifying at once the glory, the light and the splendor of God, and was styled the "Lord of Lords," the "Most Great Name," the "Ancient Beauty," the "Pen of the Most High," the "Hidden Name," the "Preserved Treasure," "He Whom God will make manifest," the "Most Great Light," the "All-Highest Horizon," the "Most Great Ocean," the "Supreme Heaven," the "Pre-Existent Root," the "Self-Subsistent," the "Day-Star of the Universe," the "Great Announcement," the "Speaker on Sinai," the "Sifter of Men," the "Wronged One of the World," the "Desire of the Nations," the "Lord of the Covenant," the "Tree beyond which there is no passing." He derived His descent, on the one hand, from Abraham (the Father of the Faithful) through his wife Katurah, and on the other from Zoroaster, as well as from Yazdigird, the last king of the Sasaniyan dynasty. He was moreover a descendant of Jesse, and belonged, through His father, Mirza Abbas, better known as Mirza Buzurg -- a nobleman closely associated with the ministerial circles of the Court of Fath-'Ali Shah -- to one of the most ancient and renowned families of Mazindaran.

"In God's eyes, these two days (birth of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh) are one," Baha'u'lah says in His Most Holy Book, the Kitab-i-'Aqdas.

 Photos : Room in which the Báb was born and the view of Tihrán where Bahá'u'lláh was born.

Referances : Nabil Narrative, London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. 1953

God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust, 1944

Kitab-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, the Universal House of Justice, Haïfa, 1992

Talks given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in Haïfa, from “Habib Recollections” Bahá’í Publishong Trust, Persia 118 B.E.

Montreal, September 25, 2020 – Over 50 friends as well as some Spiritual Assembly members of Cornwall, ON joined together to say farewell to a remarkable human being, Patricia Shayne who lived for long years in Montreal, via video streaming. On a beautiful autumn day, the funeral service was held at Alexandria, ON where Pat lived during the last decades of her life.

In a cablegram addressed to the British Bahá’í Community dated April 25, 1951, the late Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith, Shoghi-Effendi, mentions of “ … the sterling qualities of fidelity, tenacity and intrepidity of the British followers of the Faith.”  These qualities were indeed part of Patricia Shayne’s existence throughout her life! 

Patricia was born in Brighton, England to George and Lilly Mae Nichols on October 12, 1927 and died peacefully at Sandfield Place Residence in Cornwall, Ontario on September 21, 2020.

During the Second World War, she met and married a Canadian soldier Marcel Jacques and immigrated to Canada in 1946 on the Queen Mary with her son and only child Raymond to join her husband in Montreal.

After over 30 years of being together, the marriage unfortunately broke up in the late 1970s, and Pat subsequently married Jimmy Shayne, a Montreal Bahá’í. They lovingly lived together until Jimmy’s death in Alexandria in 2001.

Throughout life, Pat spared no effort to make her own mother feel welcome into her life after the death of her father in 1957 when her mother moved to Canada. She made every effort to make her mother’s life more pleasant and comfortable. 

When Pat married Jim Shayne, she embraced the Bahá’í Faith and pursued her new belief with the normal zeal and intensity. She always seemed to be very pleased that she made that choice. She liked the Oneness of all religions. Like her husband Jimmy she was an ardent promoters of its principles of the oneness of humanity.

Jimmy needing a lot of care during the last years of his life and Pat cared for him in every way possible, including reminding him of telephone numbers and to keep in touch with friends and the community activities in order to help him keep his mind sharp. Jim died at 96 years old.

She spent most of her life helping and serving others. She even made her mark at the Reddy Memorial Hospital in Montréal where she worked until her retirement. They still remember how she always went the extra mile to be of service. The union often complained about her doing more work than the job required! 

In addition to her work at the Reddy Memorial Hospital, she was quite a social bee and loved to be with people. She always found some way to be of service to others. She loved humor and loved to laugh. She had a calming effect on those around her. 

Pat was an amazingly resolute person who, according to her son Raymond, “always gave her all,” facing adversity with characteristic resilience and tough-mindedness both in England during the Second World War and in Canada after her immigration.”

The first thing you would notice after all that was her true kindness, humility, her gentle nature and courteous manners. She was not only a nurse’s aid by profession but she was truly a caring individual. 

When she heard that the Bahá’í Shrine in Montreal needed someone to go there and take care of it, she and Jimmy went there every weekend and sometimes during the week to clean the place and leave a bouquet of flowers on the table in the room where Abdu’l-Bahá gave all his talks in 1912. They both cleaned the windows of the ground and top floors of that house regularly and tried to make the place worthy of many visitors who came to that holy spot.

Pat was an avid learner until the end! She learned how to use videoconferencing and every Thursday afternoon attended a Ruhi Book session on line with some friends.

She had a great sense of humour and often made everybody laugh at the Feast. She loved the Faith and never missed a 19 days Feast in Verdun.

Pat, always prayed to the Beloved Master Abdu’l-Bahá. Her Master’s Voice was always next to her! She would listen to it while the birds of paradise were warbling their melodies in harmony. Pat and Jim had a number of Magnolia and yellow-throat warblers in their home while they were in Montreal as well as beautiful and colourful African violets. 

Pat was a true friend, someone in whose presence one is in paradise, in the spiritual world. One could not be with Pat and not to be in the spiritual world. 

Here is something Pat wrote for Jimmy's second book of poetry, "Time is just a place"  "There was nothing devious about Jim. . . . To be with Jim night and day, for me was like heaven on earth. And as his health declined, we used to sit on the sofa, every afternoon, and watch old movies, and hold hands, and side by side, let the seconds, and the minutes, and the hours, and the days, and the nights, and the weeks, and the months, and the years roll by, in our own world, mixed with prayers, and music, and it is not over. Our love continues." (Summer 2005). As Jim himself wrote: "No matter where we are, there is forever."  

The sun was shining and Dvojak’s Slavonic Dances were playing and just a thought came to mind: how wonderful that you were now soaring through the illimitable space towards your beloved Jimmy – and a tear was shed for you! Jimmy used to say, when a person prays it’s like dropping a letter in a mailbox.  If you don’t let go, the letter won’t go anywhere.

Patricia leaves her son Raymond, his wife Penelope, two grandsons Steven and Peter, and one great-grandson Zachary.

From Robert Michell to Pat:

You were

Sweetness upon sweetness,

A glowing face among us

Shining with the light

Of a most tender heart. 

I am sure that up there,

Jimmy is regaling you with

Many heavenly puns and stories. 

You have now earned your wings,

Within the pantheon of God’s elect.

I know you are shining down upon us

Waiting to welcome us with the

Same gentle embrace we all knew. 

References: Golgasht Mossafai, interview with Patricia Jacques 2013 

Tributes from : Marilyn Ghadirian, Buhran Zahrai, Golgasht Mossafai, Raymond Jacques, Marc Carriere (Jimmy’s PSW carer), Maury Miloff, Jane McMillan, Todd Lawson, Lise Vigneault and Maria Chouchtari

Photos: Jimmy Shayne and Patricia at their wedding ceremony.

Members of Cornwall Spiritual Assembly at the funeral

A collage from Pat’s life

A complete video documentary from Pat’s funeral can be viewed at:

Montreal, Thursday, August 6, 2020 – A group of self-motivated friends from the city have started a forum to discuss the subject of “Unity in diversity”. This topic, so dear to the hearts of the Bahá’í Community all over the world has been a source of inspiration for poets, writers, musicians, artists, theatre and movie script writers.

Unity of race and ethnical diversity are well elucidated in the Bahá’í Writings. The Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, in a message to the Bahá’í World says the following:

 I am reminded, on this historic occasion, of the significant words uttered by Bahá'u'lláh Himself, Who as attested by the Center of the Covenant, in His Writings, "compared the coloured people to the black pupil of the eye," through which "the light of the spirit shineth forth."                                        

(Shoghi Effendi:  Messages to the Baha'i World 1953, Page: 136)

The central theme of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, the Center of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, in the North American lectures was Race Unity. Speaking in Chicago on April 30, 1912, He said:

...Difference of race and color is like the variegated beauty of flowers in a garden....

Bahá'u'lláh hath said that the various races of humankind lend a composite harmony andbeauty of color to the whole. Let all associate, therefore, in this great human garden, even as flowers grow and blend together side by side without discord or disagreement between them.    

                                                        (The Promulgation of Universal Peace, pp. 68-69)

To inspire the participants, passages, quotes and prayers on Race Unity from various sources  were read and discussed in depth in the Forum. Many ideas and experiences were shared by the friends from North Carolina, Nova-Scotia and Montreal.  It surely created a space to uplift and refresh the soul. It created an enthusiasm to support each other’s efforts to translate ideals into meaningful individual action at this time when both societal and personal transformation are sorely needed.

Dozens of similar virtual gatherings are organized throughout Montreal neighbourhoods and the topic of “Unity in Diversity” is discussed. Practical ideas were suggested to encourage all of us to take positive action and make an exceptional effort to try to bring our society together and create a harmonious environment where justice and encouragement will be everyone’s commitment.

In a letter addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States dated 22 July 2020, the Universal House of Justice writes : “ Ultimately, the power to transform the world is effected by love, love originating from the relationship with the divine, love ablaze among members of a community, love extended without restriction to every human being. This divine love, ignited by the Word of God, is disseminated by enkindled souls through intimate conversations that create new susceptibilities in human hearts, open minds to moral persuasion, and loosen the hold of biased norms and social systems so that they can gradually take on a new form in keeping with the requirements of humanity’s age of maturity.”

Since its existence over a century ago, the Montreal Bahá’í Community as well as the Bahá’ís of the world are diligently working to bring about this unity and love that humanity so desperately needs and to fulfill one of the major promises made by the Founder of the Bahá’í Faith : “The utterance of God is a lamp, whose light is these words: Ye are the fruits of one tree, and the leaves of one branch. Deal ye one with another with the utmost love and harmony, with friendliness and fellowship. He Who is the Daystar of Truth beareth Me witness! So powerful is the light of unity that it can illuminate the whole earth. The One true God, He Who knoweth all things, Himself testifieth to the truth of these words. Exert yourselves that ye may attain this transcendent and most sublime station, the station that can insure the protection and security of all mankind. This goal excelleth every other goal, and this aspiration is the monarch of all aspirations.”

(Bahá’u’lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 14)

Montreal, September 21, 2020 - Under a bright sun, in a warm and respectful musical atmosphere, the traditional International Day of Peace ceremony took place in Saint-Laurent at Beaudet Park, also known as the "Peace Park"! This ceremony, redesigned in accordance with the health regulations of the Directorate of Public Health, brought together elected officials including  members of the Saint-Laurent City Council, a dozen representatives of the institutions and community organizations of the borough, the Intercultural Committee of Saint-Laurent and two students representing the International School “des apprenants”.

This event is held annually in partnership with the Saint-Laurent borough, the Saint-Laurent Intercultural Committee of COSSL (Committee of Saint-Laurent Social Organizations) and the Bahá'í Community of Montreal.

Aref Salem of the Saint-Laurent Borough Council, for whom the theme of peace and community security are very important subjects, spoke about the importance of building together a healthy planet where we would live in harmony with others. Gigi Vidal, representing the Saint-Laurent Intercultural Committee, spoke about the important causes of conflict, including materialism, over-armament, prejudices of race, colour, creed, nationhood, gender, etc. She concluded by saying that "world peace is not only possible but inevitable" and that we must work to have unity in diversity and social justice. The representative of the Cari Saint-Laurent presented the drawings of the children of the members of the Cari Saint-Laurent, the ABC Centre and the Bon Courage Centre. The Lions Club representative presented their peace poster program and the works of finalists aged 11 to 14 from previous years. The two students from the International School of “des apprenants” shared one of their works and a very touching poem they composed on the theme of peace.

Like every other year, one minute of silence was observed in memory of those who are the victims of war, intolerance, injustice and all other prejudices!

At the end of the ceremony, a duo of musicians sang and made the participants dance to celebrate peace!


Caption of the group photo : The borough councillor for the District of Côte-de-Liesse, Jacques Cohen, the City Councillor for the District of Norman-McLaren, Aref Salem and the City Councillor for the District of Côte-de-Liesse, Francesco Miele, surrounded by several members of the Saint-Laurent Intercultural Committee.

You can watch a video clip of the event at the following link:

Montreal, July 17, 2020 – Some one hundred participants in all, joined the Montreal Bahá’í Community to listen to five lectures given by Dr. Todd Lawson, Emeritus Professor of Islamic Thought from University of Toronto, on “Joseph and the Bahá’í Faith”. This was the seventh part of a series of Annual Raymond Flournoy Course on the Bahá’í Faith and Islám. In order to remember Raymond and to introduce him to many participants from other parts of the world, a short video-documentary was also shown. All sessions were viewed via a tele-conference application due to the current pandemic.

Dr. Lawson explained that the very first book of divine revelation in the Bahá’í Faith, the book that in fact inaugurated the Bahá’í Era, was a commentary on the Súrih of Joseph, The Qur’án’s 12th chapter. In the Book of Certitude (p. 231), Bahá’u’lláh refers to this Composition as “the first, the greatest and the mightiest of all books”.

The course, dedicated to the shining memory of Raymond Flournoy, one of the early Bahá’ís of Montreal, made an exploration on the significance of such a choice on the part of the Báb. He, obviously, could have opened the new cycle of spiritual growth and development in any way He chose. Why did He choose the figure of Joseph as an appropriate symbol for the potentialities of this new period of human history? To better understand such relationship, parts of the Súrih of Joseph in the Qur'án, the story of Joseph in the Bible (Genesis 37-50), and the way Joseph appears in the Bahá’í Writings, including the inaugural chapter of Qayyúm al-Asmá’ or Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph by the Báb and the Kitáb-i - Íqán or The Book of Certitude by Bahá’u’lláh were explored in depth.

Within the Báb's mystical narrative, references to the story of Joseph are everywhere, some direct and obvious, many others subtle, allusive, and indirect. The effect is that of a kaleidoscopic motif, present wherever one turns in reading the Báb's words, as if the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' were both an analytical response to and a new creative revelation of meanings about the story of Joseph. The Báb uses verbal echoes that cause His own mission to  resonate with that of earlier Manifestations and to present entirely new meanings in episodes within the story. For example, at one point the Báb refers to Himself and His words as the same light that was "raised up from the midst of the Burning Bush.”* The historical allusion is not used merely to lend authority to His claim; rather, His wording has the effect of infusing fresh and deeper metaphorical meaning into an old image: the Burning Bush (from the story of Moses) becomes a symbol for the world of being, a world now infused with the light (the revealed knowledge) of a new and contemporary revelation. The boldness of the Báb in using this re-interpretive technique shows both the artistic and the conceptual power of the Báb's writing.

With the rise of the Bahá'í Faith the story of Joseph reached its culmination in a way that is unique in history—as a defining mystical narrative in two related but independent religions arising within nineteen years of each other. Though the Báb was a Manifestation of God and the founder of a great religion, He also perceived Himself to be a forerunner. He wrote tablets addressed humbly to "Him Whom God Will Make Manifest" and repeatedly cautioned His followers to recognize and accept that Figure when He should appear.** Though boldly identifying Himself with Joseph in the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá, the Báb also repeatedly used references to Moses and the Burning Bush (as mentioned earlier) in ways that made Him appear to be placing His own Revelation within a larger theophany context then unfolding in mysterious ways.

When Bahá'u'lláh declared His own mission in 1863, His announcement was stupendous in its scope. Not only did He claim to be the One promised by the Báb (the successor to the Báb and an independent Manifestation of God) but, indeed, to be the Promised One of all Ages (that is, the one expected in the millennial traditions of all major religions and the Figure representing the culmination of a great cycle of religions). Bahá'u'lláh refers to Himself as "the Divine Joseph" and, like the Báb, uses that story as one of the metaphors by which He defines His own Mission. The motif recurs in many of His major works.

The highlight of this lecture series was the session introduced by Professor Stephen Lambden from University of California, Merced, Humanities department. He has been specialized in Abrahamic religious texts and Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Arabic. Professor Lambden’s in-depth presentation explaining the relationship between Hebrew, Christian, Islamic, Bábi and Bahá’í Holy texts clarified many spiritual meanings within the scriptures of the past and present.

Present at all sessions was Dr Moojan Momen from the UK who stayed awake patiently until 2 AM, GMT and commented on various topics to help the participants a clearer understanding of the Writings of the Báb.

Since 1985, Dr Momen and his wife Dr. Wendi Momen are managing the Afnán Library at Sandy, Bedfordshire, UK. The Afnan Library Trust which was established as an independent charity, have attempted over the years to fulfil the wishes of the late Mr Hasan Balyuzi, a descendant of the Báb, who donated all his collection of books and manuscripts to the Library. Many books, manuscripts and other archival material have been added to the library ever since. The Afnan Library is accessible online at :

Video-conference online coordination was skillfully provided by Shahab Akhound-Zadeh.

Photos : - Golgasht Mossafai, a rare photo of Professor Stephen Lambden and Dr Moojan Momen during a presentation organized by the Harrow Bahá’í Community 1973, UK.

- A Persian Miniature drawing of Joseph and His brothers.

References :

*The Báb, Selections 41

** Bahá'u'lláh, Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, trans. Shoghi Effendi (Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1983) 208.

  • Jim Stokes, published in World Order, 29:2
  • Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat is a musical comedy with lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Andrew Lloyd Webber. The story is based on the "coat of many colours" story of Joseph from the Bible's Book of Genesis.

Montreal, September 10, 2020 - As the end of his stay in Montreal approached, 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent a quiet Sunday atthe Windsor Hotel. He gave speeches in the morning and afternoon. Speaking to his friends on the last day inMontreal, he said, "I have sowed the seeds. You have to water them. You must educate souls in divine morality, makethem spiritual and guide them towards the unity of humanity and universal peace. »

The next day was another rainy day, but the departure of 'Abdu'l-Bahá for Toronto (en route to Buffalo) had alreadybeen arranged. 'Abdu'l-Bahá’s chronicler, Mahmúd, was asked to take care of the Master's luggage, but it was thehotel staff who took care of it. 'Abdu'l-Bahá expressed his concern to Mahmúd because his luggage contained valuablewritings and documents that he intended to offer to "libraries in London and Paris." As everyone was to learn later, atthe Grand Trunk Railway station (now the Canadian Pacific Railway), the Customs Chief Inspector and his assistants letthe luggage pass without any inspection, stating that they had no reason to inspect the luggage of the Bahá’ís. At thisdeclaration, the Master's face blossomed like a rose, and he spoke of the value of sincerity and loyalty, which are thesource of the prosperity and tranquillity of the peoples of the world.

There is no doubt that the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá affected a much larger number of people than the mere 2,500 whocame to hear him or who came into contact with him. Some 440,000 readers of the dynamic Montreal press, inEnglish and French, were informed of his visit and his teachings. Leaving behind the emotion of the many people who came to bid him farewell, 'Abdu'l-Bahá embarked the train International Limited, which left Bonaventure Station at9:05 a.m. to Toronto and then Buffalo, New York.

It was in the afternoon of September 9, 1912, that Jim, a little boy of four years old, while sitting on a fence just outside the town of Oshawa, Ontario, alongside the railroad tracks, watched a train hurtle by. At about 3:30 p.m., he saw through one of its windows something that so overwhelmed him that he fell backwards off the fence and onto the grass below. He described what he saw as “a man wearing a long flowing white robe waving from the train.” Later in life he would explain that this was his earliest surviving memory. “Now I know who that old man was,” he said. “It was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá when he was in this country.” It had taken Jim Loft decades to make the connection. On October 23, 1931, Jim married Melba Whetung, who was raised on the Curve Lake Ojibwa First Nation. Like Jim, she had a keen interest in spiritual topics. It was Melba’s friend Emma who first spoke to her about Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. Jim Loft’s ancestral home was the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory but he grew up in Oshawa, Ontario. He was greatly affected by the prejudice he encountered growing up an aboriginal in rural Canada. Though submerged in a society that had little regard for him, Jim believed from childhood that racial equality was a just principle, and he later noted that he felt a strong pull to spiritual matters. During his difficult teen years, he would often ask God’s help to inspire him to help alleviate the poverty, oppression and alcoholism that plagued his people.

In 1949, Jim and Melba settled on the Tyendinaga Reserve and dedicated themselves to serving and supporting the First Nations community. For Jim, the memory of the man in a flowing white robe waving to him from the train inspired him to his final day.

It was Jim’s idea to return to Tyendinaga and teach the Faith. On September 2, 1948 Jim wrote Shoghi Effendi introducing himself and asking if he should return to Canada. They were living then in Marysville, Michigan. On October 2, 1948, Jim received an answer written by Shoghi Effendi’s wife, ‘Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, in which she stated that Shoghi Effendi would “greatly welcome your returning to your own tribe”. The letter had an addendum in the handwriting of Shoghi Effendi in which he stated:

“Your most welcome letter rejoiced my heart and I hasten to assure you of a most hearty welcome into the Bahá’í fold … May the Beloved bless, protect and sustain you always and aid you to realize your heart’s desire. Your true brother, Shoghi.”

Jim and Melba , the first believers of Canada’s First Nation population, were very active in the Bahá’í community in Ontario. They attended regional conferences as well as National Conventions. However, while enduring extreme poverty during this time, they relied upon their faith and reached out for advice again to Shoghi Effendi. His response was for them to seek the guidance of the National Spiritual Assembly and that they would hopefully find work to sustain the family that would allow them to stay in their community.

In 1971, Jim and Melba celebrated their fortieth wedding anniversary. Two years later Jim died of a heart attack at the age of 65. It was Jim who brought the renewal of the Peacemaker’s teachings through Bahá’u’lláh to the birthplace of the Peacemaker, the community of Tyendinaga; this was an act of honour and sacrifice that only Jim could have accomplished.

In 1976, Melba went on Pilgrimage to the Bahá’í World Centre in Haifa, Israel. One of the highlights of her trip was the mansion at Bahji where Bahá’u’lláh lived during the last years of his life and in which she spied a picture of the first Native American Local Spiritual Assembly in the United States that had been formed in 1948 on the Omaha Indian Reservation near Macy, Nebraska. The picture had been placed there by Shoghi Effendi in the doorway to his room.

The beautiful focus of her mind led Melba to many accomplishments. Melba’s travels and teaching were not limited to North America. She also travelled in the summer of 1978 to Europe with a Bahá’í teaching team. She was honoured in many ways, one of which was the use of her Indian or spiritual name for the Gathering room in the Yukon Bahá’í Center. Her spiritual name was Kinaaj-Kwe which can be interpreted as good, kind and gracious lady.

On November 22, 1985 in the morning, Melba’s spirit took flight after a long illness. At her funeral, Chief Earl Hill, the Chief of the Tyendinaga First Nation, was a pall bearer.

In 1986, a Native Council was held in Iqaluit, Nunavut. A special ceremony honored Melba’s memory and life. ‘Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum attended and stated that she found the ceremony the most moving part of the occasion, which unified everyone present. At the gathering she urged Aboriginal people to stay in touch with culture and tradition as a foundation for faith as Melba had done.

Melba was buried next to Jim. The inscription on their grave stone reads: “Bahá’í Pioneers, Alfred “Jim” Loft 1908-1973, Melba Whetung Loft 1912-1985, The Guardian’s obedient servants.” Jeannie Seddon, a friend of the Lofts, wrote of Jim: “He is a Canadian hero whose life will be an inspiration to future generations as it has been to his family”.


Golgasht Mossafá’í,  -Melba Loft in London, UK – summer of 1978 with a friend from the Bahá’í teaching team.

© Bahá’í World, 1948 – Jim Loft

-The members of the all-indigenous Local Spiritual Assembly of Macy, Nebraska, on the Winnebago reservation proudly display the Greatest Name. Photo courtesy of Susan Bishop 


Mossafai , Golgasht :Personal notes, “Interview with Melba Loft”: London, UK: Harrow Times Newspaper, 1978.

Mossafai , Golgasht : film script «’Abdu’l-Bahá, the Montreal Sojourn»

Mossafai , Golgasht : Bahá’í Chronicles article on Alfred and Melba Loft

-Loft Watts, Evelyn and Verge, Patricia “Return to Tyendinaga: The Story of Jim and Melba Loft, Bahá’í Pioneers”, Essex, Maryland: One Voice Press, 2011

-The Bahá’í World, Kidlington, Oxford: George Ronald Publisher. Volume XVI and XIX

- Mahmúd Diary, volume 1 in persian, 1914

Montreal, July 7, 2020 – There are already significant efforts underway to learn how to create models of unity in neighborhoods and communities throughout the nation. Baha’is have been persistently engaged in such efforts for many years. The aim is not unity in sameness—it is unity in diversity. It is the recognition that everyone in this land has a part to play in contributing to the betterment of society, and that true prosperity, material and spiritual, will be available to us all to the degree that we live up to this standard. We should earnestly discover what is being done, what truly helps to make a difference, and why. We should share this knowledge throughout the country as a means of inspiring and assisting the work of others. If we do this, we could soon find ourselves in the midst of a mass transition toward racial justice.

Eddie Elliot (the first Montrealer from African descent who accepted the Bahá’í Faith) participated as a representative of the National Spiritual Assembly, in the African International Teaching Conference held in Kampala, Uganda, in February 1953 but his untimely death in July 1953 while working on a high voltage transformer left the Canadian Bahá’í Community bereft of one of the few African Canadians to have embraced the Bahá’í Faith in Canada at that time. Eddie Elliot was known as a “very pure and distinguished soul,” having “warmth and strength,” serving as the “first bridge between Black and White communities in Montreal.” At one time he was member of the city’s Inter-Racial Board and the Committee of Management of the Negro Community Centre. According to Amine De Mille, a Bahá’í and a freelance writer, ”he distinguished himself by his loyal services, his honourable character, and his beautiful singing voice.”

Another African Canadian who had become a member of May Maxwell’s Fratority Club in those early days of the Faith in Montreal, although not a Bahá’í, was Dr. Phil Edwards (1907-1971), an Olympic champion and apparently, the first black West Indian to graduate as a medical student from McGill University, Montreal. A middle-distance runner, he participated in three Olympic games (1928, 1932, 1936) and in the 1934 British empire Games, winning increasingly greater honours. Apparently, Dr. Edwards also attended firesides in the Maxwell home. It was another eight years before another African Canadian – Mrs. Violet States (née Grant) – was to enroll in the Bahá’í Faith in 1942. Mrs. States was the organist in Rev, Este’s church, and the only other member to have joined the Bahá’í Community from that congregation.

The Bahá’í interest in reaching African Canadians was not confined to Montreal only. We know that Louis Gregory undertook a trip to Vancouver to speak in five meetings in early 1920’s. Bahá’í attention to African Canadians on Canada’s east coast, and in Toronto, achieved a number of results, either in terms of establishing general relations between the Bahá’í Community and African Canadians, or in terms of an increase in adherents, however modest. Such results occurred in the late 1960s.

One fifth of the membership of the Bahá’í Community In Montreal, at the present time, is comprised of African Canadians from various ethnical backgrounds. They are actively involved in the activates of the Faith for the betterment of the World.

“Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust? That no one should exalt himself over the other. Ponder at all times in your hearts how ye were created. Since We have created you all from one same substance it is incumbent on you to be even as one soul, to walk with the same feet, eat with the same mouth and dwell in the same land, that from your inmost being, by your deeds and actions, the signs of oneness and the essence of detachment may be made manifest.” -Bahá’u’lláh, The Hidden Words



Photos: Montreal's Bahá’í Community circa 1930 - Eddie Elliot is in the back row left

            Rowland Estall, an early Montreal Bahá’í (1906 - 1993)

            Violet States at a concert in Montreal (1950)

Sources : W.C. van den Hoonaard,  The Origins of the Bahá’í Community of Canada

            Canadian Bahá’í News, April 1953

            Montreal Star, 11 July 1953

            Montreal Council, 1928

            McGill Student Registration Records 1930

            Rowland Estall, 1977

            Golgasht Mossafai, interviews with Violet States and Raymond Flournoy 2001-2016

Montreal, August 30, 2020 - Tonight, in 1912, 108 years ago, three persons were waiting on the platform at Windsor Station. Renowned architect Sutherland Maxwell, his wife May and a friend Louisa Bosch were waiting for the arrival of a prominent and somewhat famous figure in recent years in North America and Europe! The train was expected to arrive at 8:00 p.m., the wait was long as a change of schedule was announced. Finally, the train arrived around midnight!

It was not difficult to recognize this personality clothed in white accompanied by two Persians dressed differently from the others! The majestic figure of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the Center of the Bahá'u'lláh, the son of the founder of a Universal Faith, approached the friends who were eagerly awaiting him! Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell implored 'Abdu'l-Bahá to stay at their home during his visit in Montreal; which he accepted graciously! Two carriages took them to 716 West Pine Avenue where a large number of enthusiastic friends were waiting for them.

May Maxwell describes the evening as follows:

 "In the bright light of a summer moon, 'Abdu'l-Bahá arrived on Friday, August 30, with two interpreters, and when he entered the house of the Bahá’ís on Pine Avenue, several neighbors were watching the scene from their windows, to catch a glimpse of this majestic white-clad figure, whom they affectionately called the "Persian prophet" and whose arrival had so eloquently had been announced in the newspapers. Among the people present that night of August 31, was John Lewis, a Toronto Star journalist, a Bahá’í sympathizer and probably a believer. He was largely instrumental to prepare many articles that appeared in the newspapers, in English and French, throughout 'Abdu'l-Bahá’s stay in Montreal.

The day after his arrival in Montreal, Sutherland Maxwell accompanied the Master 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a ride in the city. On the way, he briefly visited the Cathedral of Mary Queen of the World and stopped in front of the building for a while. This cathedral was named "Our Lady of Saint Sulpice" destroyed in the Great Fire of Montreal in 1852. A small replica of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome was built in its place in 1894 and was named " the Cathedral of St. James the Major."!

Although some considered Montreal a place of religious bigotry, 'Abdu'l-Bahá found "all doors open" and encountered the same irresistible reaction as everywhere during his trip. People of all nationalities, all races andfrom all social backgrounds coming to hear him. After three days staying with the Maxwells, the Master decided to transfer  his residence to the Windsor Hotel. On Thursday, September 5, 1921, on the 6th day of his stay in Montreal, the Archbishop of Montreal, Louis Joseph Paul  Bruchési, expressed to 'Abdu'l-Bahá his pleasure in meeting him and his gratitude for his "words on the purpose of the manifestation of Christ and the other Holy Manifestations." 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited the archbishop, a member of the Catholic clergy who was very interested in Orientals, to attend his public talk at St. James' Methodist Church later that day!

'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage arrived at St. James Methodist Church on St. Catherine Street West. Inspired by the architecture of French cathedrals, this church was one of the most beautiful in Montreal, and had been the subject of much praise since the laying of the first stone in the year 1844, a memorable year. A crowd of 1,200 people stood up when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entered the room. The Reverend Herbert Simmons, the Anglican vicar of Christ Church Cathedral, introduced him. 'Abdu'l-Bahá first spoke of the "Bahá’í principles for the happiness of the human race." He followed up with the religious teachings of his Father. The public discovered with such interest the message of the Bahá’í Faith that Judge Robert Weir, who had already heard of the Master and had come to hear him for the first time that evening, stood up and said:

"Some believed the lineage of the prophets extinguished, but tonight we could hear these divine teachings from the mouth of an Eastern prophet who is a descendant of God's Prophets. The message he delivered will never be forgotten. There is no doubt that these teachings on world peace, the unity of humanity and the distribution of wealth are perfectly in line with the principles of economic laws, equal rights and the adoption of a universal language. These are the basic principles of humanity's progress.” The pastor then stood up and said, "It would be wrong to believe that the West has attained perfection and that the East has no benefits or lessons to offer it." ‘Abdu'l-Bahá mentioned several things that we had not heard or understood before.”

'Abdu'l-Bahá then recited a prayer and thanked them all for their remarks. Later, in the sacristy, the clergy were very respectful of him; they found that they lacked words to express their gratitude for his visit and his words. Judge Weir, in particular, repeatedly mentioned his desire to become a Bahá’í!



- 'Abdu'l-Bah' in Canada, 2012 edition.

- Mahmúd Diary, Diary of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's travels in Europe and North America, Persian edition 1914.

- Earl Redman, Abdu'l-Baha in Their Midst, 2011.

Photos : * Archbishop of Montreal, Louis Joseph Paul Bruchési  (1855 –1939), Ville de Montréal – Gestion de documents et archives.

**Robert Stanley Weir (1856-1926) was a Montreal judge and poet. He composed the English words of O Canada, the country's national anthem.

Montreal, July 1, 2020 – It is essential for us to join hands in a process of learning how to create models of what we want to see in every dimension of humanity’s life, as we learn to apply the principle of oneness through practical engagement and experience.

An essential element of the process will be honest and truthful discourse about current conditions and their causes, and understanding, in particular, the deeply entrenched notions of anti-colour that pervade our society. We must build the capacity to truly hear and acknowledge the voices of those who have directly suffered from the effects of racism. This capacity should manifest itself in our schools, the media, and other civic arenas, as well as in our work and personal relations. This should not end with words, but lead to meaningful, constructive action.

In 1934, the Montreal Spiritual Assembly received a letter from the National Amity Committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, encouraging it to promote racial amity by holding meetings “for the purpose of bringing together intelligent and open-minded citizens,” presenting scientific facts concerning race, and apprising people “who know little or nothing of Negro culture, to hear what these are striving for, and what are their ideals.” Speakers at these gatherings could be those who were not Bahá’ís, but who would endorse the Bahá’í principles of the unity of humanity, “otherwise there will be no result.” The letter encouraged “Bahá’ís as a body (to) respond to the needs and aims of alien people within their midst.”

The aims were laudable and even far ahead of their times, but were still quite unlike contemporary attitudes in Bahá’í Communities. Then the new religion was largely seen by its adherents as primarily a movement “owned” by particular groups, which had to reach “out” to various races and people, rather than a movement belonging to all. An African Canadian adherent best expressed the question of “ownership” and had this to say when asked about the way she enrolled in the Bahá’í Community:

  • In those days you had to write a letter of intent to the Local Assembly stating that you believed in the Central Figures of the Faith and that you had read the book New Era, and the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. When I met the committee, they talked with me and then asked me to step out into the hall while they discussed my acceptance. I knew that whether they accepted me or not, I was a Bahá’í – the Bahá’í Faith belonged to everyone. Why be formal about it?, I thought. They couldn’t keep me out, so they bring me in? it was my right.

The former perspective produced an ethnocentric view that defined the boundaries of the Bahá’í Community by those who were already members. This entailed a static view of community membership, whereby the boundaries were not extended outwards.

Another goal, according to the letter from the Amity Committee, related to the process of Bahá’í Communities educating themselves about the Bahá’í ideas of race relations. In this connection the Amity Committee summarized some of the past obstacles to racial unity in the form of “lack of intelligent information, by too great diversity of opinion, by minor prejudices, by sentimentality and over emotionalism.”

The narrative of Edward (Eddie) Elliot (1898-1953), a Hydro-Line worker and among the first African-Canadians to enroll to the new religion in Canada illustrates the kind of ties members of minority group would develop with other Bahá’ís. He had come to the Bahá’í Faith through Reverend Este’s Church. His mother has been a maid in the Maxwell household and Eddie Elliot and Mary Maxwell were close childhood friends. Rowland Estall (one of the early Montreal Bahá’ís) speaks further about Mr. Elliot’s involvement with the Bahá’í Community:

  • … as a youth, he (Elliot) was both part of the Bahá’í youth group and of a social club organized by (Mary Maxwell) called the “ Fratority Club.” By this word Mary Maxwell meant to put together the words “fraternity” and “sorority” and had invited people to belong to it, mostly young students at McGill, who would otherwise not have been able to find membership in the exclusive fraternities and sororities around the campus…

In later years, Elliot was often chair of the local Spiritual Assembly of Montreal, although he remained a member of the Negro Church – retaining membership in one’s church was not an uncommon practice among Bahá’ís during those early years. Elliot would arrive at the Maxwell home after dark to not to arouse suspicion among Maxwell’s neighbours.

In a conversation Rowland Estall asked Elliot “when are you coming to the fireside (informal gatherings at Maxwell’s home)? And he said “after dark, you know I wouldn’t come when it’s light.” So nine o’clock he would show up and it was time to go home. These are the sad things about those days…

One of the people who was the member of Reverend Este’s Church, was the 14 years old Violet States (née Grant). Violet and Elliot’s parents have had moved to Canada from West-indies as labourers. The men mostly worked in the Rail Road Company, CN and the women worked as maids, such as Elliot’s mother who worked at Maxwell’s home. Elliot carried a Sunday School program in the church and Violet attended those classes. She remembers that Elliot would get up at a certain hour and leave saying that he had to attend another important meeting. Finally Violet one day asked him about those important meetings that Elliot was attending.

Elliot talked to Violet about the Bahá’í Faith and she accepted the message without any hesitation. She worked in various Montreal Schools as a music teacher. She was also a member of all women Symphony which gave its first performance in the Carnegie Hall, New York. She was nominated by the city of Montreal as one the ten women who build this city and received a certificate of honour from the Montreal Mayor herself!

Violet is still alive and healthy and lives in a retirement home in Montreal. She is 96 years old!

Photos : The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Montreal, 1948 - Eddie Elliot is at the centre

               Violet State (née Grant)

W.C. van den Hoonaard,  The Origins of the Bahá’í Community of Canada

Estall, 1977

Golgasht Mossafai, interviews with Violet State and Raymond Flournoy

For Violet’s life stories :

Bahá'í Lady among the 20 exceptional Montreal women who are named “Builders of the City”

Name a street or establishment in Verdun in honor of Violet States!

Remembering an early pillar of the Bahá’í Faith

Montreal, August 21, 2020 – Close to one hundred participants from all over Quebec Province took part in a virtual Summer School for two and a half days! Serving the Cause and Humanity in These Troubled Times – was the theme of the School  which was held between 8:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. for three mornings, with a half hour break.  There was two evening programs with dozens of artists, musicians, singers and other artistic presentations from all over the Province.

Those of us who had the pleasure of participating in the adult program last summer were delighted to hear that our dear friends, Joan and Albert Lincoln, will be with us again. The summer school is usually a French-only event, but as this year was a virtual event, the program was offered in both English and French.  The plenary sessions was conducted in French and simultaneous translation into English was provided. The small study groups were organized according to language preference.

Summer school is normally a special time for families to come together in a lively and warm community atmosphere.  Unfortunately, the virtual experience did not allow for a joint experience with children although many children and families participated enthusiastically at the artistic evenings.  The parents of young children were encouraged to participate and arrange for appropriate activities carried out by others in a safe way so that their children were able to have a program while they attended sessions. 

Albert Lincoln devoted the first session on the subject of “The Greater Plan and the Process of Disintegration.” Being a prominent lawyer, he explained in a comprehensive language the reasons why disintegration with its intense suffering combined with undreamed of crises and upheavals are essential to the process of regeneration of the world. The crises, he explained is an inherent process of growth always followed by victories such as in 1960s events of Cuban Missile Crisis and Bay of Pig Invasion in America. Soon the victories followed by expansive program of reforms. That year, a declaration was made that the United States will change to a “Great Society” in which poverty and racial injustice has no place. A set of programs was developed to give poor people “a hand up, not a handout.” These included Medicare and Medicaid, which helped elderly and low-income people pay for health care.

Dr and Mrs. Lincoln then spoke of the process of “Integration” quoting a paragraph from a letter from the Universal House of Justice, dated April (Riḍván) 2006 :

“Penetrating, indeed, is Shoghi Effendi’s depiction of the process of disintegration accelerating in the world. Equally striking is the accuracy with which he analysed the forces associated with the process of integration. He spoke of a “gradual diffusion of the spirit of world solidarity which is spontaneously arising out of the welter of a disorganized society” as an indirect manifestation of Bahá’u’lláh’s conception of the principle of the oneness of humankind. This spirit of solidarity has continued to spread over the decades, and today its effect is apparent in a range of developments, from the rejection of deeply ingrained racial prejudices to the dawning consciousness of world citizenship, from heightened environmental awareness to collaborative efforts in the promotion of public health, from the concern for human rights to the  systematic pursuit of universal education, from the establishment of interfaith activities to the efflorescence of hundreds of thousands of local, national and international organizations engaged in some form of social action.”

The second session was focussed on “What is expected of us in this trying time?” the following paragraph from another letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 21 March 2020, clarifies the subject:

“… Beloved friends, you have of course long been occupied with the work of nurturing within groups of souls precisely the attributes that are required at this time: unity and fellow feeling, knowledge and understanding, a spirit of collective worship and common endeavour. Indeed, we have been struck by how efforts to reinforce these attributes have made communities especially resilient, even when faced with conditions that have necessarily limited their activities. Though having to adapt to new circumstances, the believers have used creative means to strengthen bonds of friendship, and to foster among themselves and those known to them spiritual consciousness and qualities of tranquility, confidence, and reliance on God. The elevated conversations that have occurred as a result, whether remotely or in person, have been a source of comfort and inspiration to many. Such efforts on your part provide a valuable service at this hour when many souls are perplexed and dismayed, unsure of what will be.”

The third session was devoted to the question of how we can rise to the challenges of the present time. Many references from the Bahá’í Writings were shared including the following paragraph :

“In a letter dated 8 December 1935 written on his behalf to an individual believer, Shoghi Effendi stated: “The universal crisis affecting mankind is … essentially spiritual in its causes.” More recently, the House of Justice has observed: “The Bahá’í community encourages and supports the manifold efforts being made by people of goodwill to better the condition of humankind and promote unity and harmony among the peoples and nations of the earth. However, the believers should never, for even one moment, lose sight of the fact that the crisis now engulfing every part of the planet is essentially spiritual.” If the crisis afflicting humanity is spiritual, can there be any question that its solution must also be spiritual? … What else but the Word of God can spiritually ennoble, educate, and inspire souls to address the needs of the time?”

It is therefore our duty to Elevate the Conversation - Promoting Positive Change without Taking Sides! Conflict and contention are categorically prohibited in the Bahá’í Faith. While we should not be idle in addressing social ills as the process of disintegration accelerates, our aim is not to choose sides in contentious social debates simply to proclaim what we believe to be right. Rather the object of our participation is to learn to elevate discourse and improve practice as we work with others in the search for effective solutions.

After each session, the participants had the opportunity to break into small groups and discuss the above topics in depth. Many practical ideas emerged from the friends in order to better serve humanity in these critical times of human history.

The Quebec Bahá’í Council warmly appreciated the presence of Lincolns at this Summer School and wished to invite them again for next year.

Lincolns devoted practically all their lives to serve the Bahá’í Faith in West and Central Africa and for some twenty years at the World Centre where Joany served at the International Teaching Centre and Albert as the Secretary-General of the Baha'i community, in the conduct of its external affairs, including relations with Israel, the host-country of its World Centre.


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